been shaped by the politics of belonging since the early 1990s.
with new sources of wealth and livelihood. In return for so doing, they may be rewarded with neo-traditional titles in their home villages. These honours confer on them symbolic capital that is not expressed in material wealth but sustained by what Fisiy and Goheen have termed ‘the conspicuous display of decorum and accompanied by public respect’ (1998:388), that in turn can always be exploited for political ends at regional and national levels. In certain cases, investing in the village is a way of consolidating success in the city, especially in the politics of